Published fortnightly from Kolkata
Vol. 51 No. 13 February 15, 2018
In this issue
Why this mindless bloodbath, why these acts of annihilation and how to bring an end to these
SUCI(C) Recalling the Essential Teachings of Marx’s Celebrated Work ‘THE CAPITAL’
THE DIALECTICAL METHOD — J V STALIN
Red Salute Comrade Ramasre Maurya
NEWS & VIEWS
Why this mindless bloodbath, why these acts of annihilation and how to bring an end to these
For some time in the recent past the world has been experiencing a horrible spate of ghastly incidents of killings. These appear to take place in any corner of the world, though some countries stand more susceptible. In terms of number of victims, these involve from a few to hundreds even thousands in one instance. But above all this, the brutality and ferocity with which suicide bombers rock open congested places, like markets, theatres, even schools, ambulances, prayer halls with a congregation of people etc., and with which a group of people pounce upon their brethrens, another section of population of the same country and particularly the way innocent people including children and women are being butchered in the process, make the world stand aghast with shock and bewilderment.
Massacres from behind smokescreen of purported causes
Massacres in every sense, these are taking place from behind the smokescreen of different claims. For instance, in some countries like Iraq or Afghanistan, the perpetrators carry on constant instigations or hold people under siege to keep people terrorised with terror acts like suicide bombings or mass killings, at the same time trying to make people believe that they are fighting for a noble cause such as establishing the rule of a religion. Of them in Afghanistan, the poor Asian country where majority people have hardly any means to eke out a living, and which is devastated and virtually occupied by the US imperialists for quite some years, the Al Queda, the Taliban or some such forces, fundamentalist or ethnic, brought about recently a series of mass killings within a span of 10 odd days in late January last. These include among many devilish heinous acts, a huge bomb blast using an ambulance at a market place in Kabul, the capital itself, taking a toll of more than a hundred lives and a few times more injured, including children and women, as also a deadly attack upon an aid agency, Save the Children, in Jalalabad city of that country. Likewise in neighbouring Pakistan, often referred to as a land breeding so-called terrorist activities, mindless killings by different outfits of ethnic roots or religious fundamentalist forces, probably reached its most deplorable form in the infamous gunmen attack on a Peshawar school, massacring more than a hundred kids and teens. It may be on a different scale in Bangladesh, another poor Asian country in South Asia, but the way the fundamentalist forces there carry out killings, particularly selectively picking up radical minded individuals to assassinate them with impunity, is another brazen instance of inhuman terror acts.
In another Asian country Iraq, once relatively stable, even secular among the Middle East countries, brute remorseless aggression by the most lethally armed US imperialist brigands and their allies since 1990s ravaged it, destroying schools, hospitals and other infrastructural facilities without sparing children, old and women. Side by side the US aggressors had the Iraqi President murdered, established a pliant rule and fomented fratricidal communal clashes among different sects or communities of the Islamic religion, which ultimately paved way to the emergence of the dreaded force of ISIS. The latter took up the rein of butchering Iraqis by Iraqis themselves under the garb of fundamentalist slogan of establishing Islamic Sultanate. In course of this, they occupied one part of the country after another, continued a reign of terror for years together till the very recent past, murdered any number of people, even videographed how they beheaded their captives. They massacred people of the Yazidi community in thousands, and captured their women and children to make them sex slaves. Situation in neighbouring Syria is almost similar with non-essential differences. In both the countries the ISIS, in reality supported and pampered by the imperialists and their allies, made use of the strong anti-US imperialist sentiment of people and communal sentiments fanned up by the imperialists. To cover up their real face, they arrogantly posed for fighting for a noble fundamentalist cause of establishing Islamic Sultanate. In reality they perpetrated worst kind of brutality that no civilized person could ever think of.
Elsewhere dreaded terrorist forces aided – abetted by the state power and exploiting the sentiment of people of some community may take to such acts of annihilating people of other community. Such was the case with a section of the Mayanmar Buddhists driving the mainly Muslim Rohingyas out of their country. The former, aided and abetted by the army of the country took recourse to loot, arson and killing using different slogans of religion, ethnicity or of fighting terror, while the Rohingyas in thousands, even lakhs had to flee what had been their home for generations to move into a blank future. The horror of this drive stupefied the entire world, as did the horror of the innumerable Syrian migrants who were uprooted from the ISIS terror triggered by the US imperialists and had to undertake most dangerous journey across the seas. All these had shocked every conscientious man.
The tale of horror in Asia is never complete without the case of the LTTE movement in Sri Lanka. Initiated on long-standing demands against discrimination and oppression of the large, though minority, Tamil population of Sri Lanka, the legitimate democratic movement of the Tamils was on the one hand dragged towards secessionism through extreme oppressive and anarchic means of the LTTE leadership. On the other hand it slid into individual assassination and finally into brute terrorism leading to killing of common people of the other community, including Sinhalese Buddhist monks, inviting in reaction intense state repression by the army of the country to crush the movement. The LTTE movement was subdued, at least for the time, but the horrors of massacres could not be wiped out totally.
The scenes are no different in the continent of Africa. The fundamentalist counterparts of the ISIS, like the Boko Haram in Nigeria or those in Libya, undertook attacks on their targets, the former particularly getting hold of children and young women for suicide attacks or sexual exploits. In other countries like Rwanda, Sudan and elsewhere, there have been severe ethnic clashes among the tribes. With imperialist machinations to create instability and then to intervene in the name of bringing order, really meaning to plunder the natural wealth and resources of these poor African countries, these latter are almost unabatedly shaking with terror of individual assassination and racial hatred and massacres. The civilized world could only withhold sighs of disbelief at the horrendous sights of the ill-clad skeletons of supposedly human beings who could barely move and survive, having been subject to unthinkable suffering that often ended in butchering in the hands of rival forces.
Neither the so-called advanced countries are spared. Examples from Europe are also picking up. Thus otherwise relatively liberal democratic-minded masses of Paris seethed with anger, mistrust and hostility after the grievous multiple shooting and grenade attacks by the ISIS on targets like music venue, sports stadium and several bar and restaurant terraces, killing in tens during a siege at a famous concert. There were suicide attacks in Manchester too.
Who in the present world would not agree that the US imperialists are known unequivocally for their mastery in espionage in and aggression upon weaker countries for the last several decades? Now they themselves are being rocked in their own land by the recurrence of menacing trend of once-forgotten racial killings against the African-Americans, as also the raging spate of mindless shooting spree in entertainment centres, parties and more pathetically, in schools fomenting sense of extreme insecurity among the common people. The victims are everywhere, the unconcerned, unaware innocent children, youth and others; the assailants are white supremacists even within the state security forces, or psychologically wayward individuals frustrated with the ideologically- culturally bankrupt capitalist society of theirs.
The above account shows in brief how widespread over the world and how reprehensible and ferocious these horrible killing acts are. Only a partial depiction is enough to visualize the whole. With no signs of waning, rather recurring unabated without any remorse or respite, such incidents make the situation worse, assailants ghastlier and more desperate. Side by side, these breed an unfathomable vacuum in people’s mind fraught only with abject sense of insecurity.
Wanton killing of innocent people presents unwarranted phenomenon
Such a miserable state of things may lead people to think of the past when there were brute wars between two camps of imperialist powers in the two world wars, massive bombing of cities, virtual shattering of European countries, death of millions of innocent people in the struggle against Nazism and above all the gas-chamber killings stemming from rabid racial hatred of the Nazi-led German imperialists and lastly the atom bomb dropped upon Hiroshima and Nagasaki of Japan by the US imperialists, annihilating unnumbered people or maiming and crippling still more for generations to come. But the world led by the saner section of people, even among celebrities, did not fail to condemn the Nazis, or the dropping of atom bombs on Japan and the devastating imperialist war as a whole. The recent spate of brute mindless pre-planned massacre of innocent people may compare in brutality only with those dark events of the Second World War and show the extent to which the imperialists can go.
Besides, there were gruelling anti-imperialist national liberation struggles in different former colonies of Asia- Africa- Latin America on the common cause of national independence and freedom from exploitation. Such struggles could grow only on the strength of the unity of people in respective colonies as also on the fraternal support from the toiling people of other countries. Thus the Vietnam liberation struggle not only united the people of Vietnam, it emerged as a common cause for any democratic-minded anti-imperialist people of virtually the entire world. The war-monger US imperialists, one of the most powerful military force of the world and their cohorts eventually faced certain defeat at the hands of a determined, united, organized, ideologically-culturally equipped invincible force of Vietnamese people. Frantically they took to the cowardice use of chemical weapons including napalm bombs, agent orange, etc. with a view to breaking the morale of the Vietnamese people. But all their efforts ended in a stark failure, with the world welcoming the victory of the Vietnamese people. Even for such a do-or-die battle, that also included guerrilla warfare, the world, even the US people themselves, did not approve of the US aggressors going beyond the norms of war followed naturally and universally by civilized people, nor did they disapprove the Vietcong guerrillas’ means and methods for their just cause.
Here one may recall that at the initial stages of Indian independence struggle against the British imperialists, revolutionaries like Kshudiram and others, took up arms against individual tyrant British rulers. But, if and when an innocent life of even a British was lost by mistake, the revolutionaries did not hesitate to admit their mistake and repent for it even from the gallows. In no way they claimed justification for their mistake, though they had acted only from the right cause of national independence struggle!
Several decades have passed by from these world wars or Vietnam liberation struggle. During this time the human civilization is supposed to have advanced further from where it was. But how is it that notwithstanding such march of civilization, reprehensible acts like suicide bombing or ghastly communal or ethnic clashes killing innocent people without numbers are now unrelentingly increasing all over the world, remorseless bloodbath is overwhelming peace and solemnity over the world. To judge the issue, one cannot forget that the reactionary world capitalist-imperialist system is not only existing in full force and fast sliding down more and more into abject decadence. In absence of the socialist camp and consequent weakening of the forces of revolution, it is trying to establish its firm grip over the entire world. The more its decadence brings about all-out crisis that it can never surmount and the more anti-capitalist, anti-imperialist mindset develops in common people, the imperialists, particularly their chieftain the US imperialists, as well as the capitalist rulers of different countries are becoming more arrogant and aggressive.
As a part of this bid to establish hegemony over the world, the US imperialists are carrying out naked aggression over weaker countries of the world on this or that pretext. The brute massive aggressions, as they had undertaken in Iraq- Afghanistan- Libya- Syria etc., initially generated a strong anti-imperialist opinion in people leading to resistance. But the US imperialists could play upon the divisive traits dormant in common people on religious or ethnic or other grounds. Unfortunately, people missed to note the truth that dreaded terror forces like Al Qaeda, Taliban or the ISIS, were all created by the imperialists, headed by the US imperialists, who for different particular reasons for each case generated these enemies of humanity with all kinds of moral and material support and assistance, including finance, propaganda, military training along with arms and ammunitions and what not. Even the gruelling ethnic clashes in Asia or Africa are similarly designed, sponsored and engineered by the imperialists aimed at establishing pliant regimes in different countries. Unaware, people even with strong anti-imperialist mindset at the brigandage of the imperialists, but confused without leadership and guidance to move in any proper and desired direction, are swept across by the imperialist designs. They fall prey to fundamentalist or divisive forces and by that, get pitted against each other. Such has been the case in Iraq and elsewhere. Using the genuine anti-imperialist mindset of people, the fundamentalists drove their roots deeper and deeper into people, bringing about fratricidal clashes more and more. When people’s opinion against these forces grew in countries like Iraq and others as well as across the world, the US imperialists stepped out posing as saviour of people to bring them out of the clutches of terrorism and renewed their aggression on that plea.
Individual assassination, suicide bombing, fratricidal clashes are self-defeating means
The question is then how to stop these brute nefarious terror acts like suicide bombing, individual assassination or communal or ethnic clashes. While perpetrating their nefarious acts, these dreaded outfits, which the arrogant , aggressive imperialists themselves create and make use of, try to make people believe that they are fighting for a cause. This is a posture meant to hoodwink people. But even if they were sincere, by adopting the means like suicide bombing or individual assassination, they do not seem to care that they are not undertaking, rather avoiding, the painstaking and necessary tasks of politically educating and organizing the toiling masses into a united force imbued with a formidable ideology and lofty culture to fight for any cause. In countries where capitalist-imperialist oppression and exploitation have turned severe and very deep-rooted, people may be temporarily baffled with the apparent strength and ferocity of the incidents of suicide bombing or ethnic or communal clashes that kill numberless innocent people. Even the call for fighting for a cause may misguide some frustrated youth, aimlessly desperate to find a way out of oppression, discrimination and exploitation and may drag them into the network of terror process. But sooner or later, the futility of these self-defeating methods becomes apparent to the masses at large as well as to the misguided activists . Inhuman brutality and vengeance with which the terror forces act are sure to dispel the initial confusion. With the masses lacking political-ideological-cultural direction, these means fail to make it clear to people towards which end these are done or for what purpose, even if it is done with any. Rather it leaves the perpetrators isolated from the masses. No amount of fundamentalist indoctrination can save them from reaching this end. On their part the capitalist- imperialist rulers do not find any difficulty to crush any adversary which is isolated from the masses with the help of their thoroughly oppressive state machinery. But before that, the damage is done. The masses are left confused and disunited and fighting among themselves, thus losing their vital strength and power to carry on sustained organized united struggle against a powerful enemy. This scenario is being repeated everywhere in the world which is affected with the venom of suicide bombing, ethnic or communal clashes etc., purportedly waged against the imperialists or for any avowed purpose.
People’s unity on correct base political line , the only safeguard
So, a number of questions loom large before any thinking person worried at the present trend of terror acts. Has not the method of wanton killing or suicide bombing plainly boomeranged? Have not people, tired, disgusted and horrified with these terror acts been trapped again in the design of imperialists to emasculate them through driving wedge of disunity, mistrust and enmity among themselves? As a result, has not the cause of fighting the US imperialist intrigue and onslaught, been receding further and further?
The human history has revealed that for any people’s movement to succeed against a powerful enemy, unity of fighting people of that country is the first pedestal to stand upon. But that does not suffice. It also requires to earn unstinted support from the fraternity beyond the national boundary, that is the opinion of toiling people of the world expressing solidarity with the struggling people of the concerned country. As mentioned Vietnam’s struggle against the US imperialists serves as the glowing example. But even with a united movement, can the unity be preserved for long if it is not clearly and correctly enunciated against whom the people are going to fight and who are their trusted allies in that fight? Can the movement be freed from confusions, hesitations, treachery and such others, if it is not clear to the fighting masses what is the goal they are fighting for or how their enemies are weaving newer and newer designs to lead the struggle astray? Can it be sustained for long in face of sufferings and initial defeats, if the fighting people are not imbued with a correct ideology and a loftier culture, that help them to see beyond their immediate gain or loss? And these are the issues covered in what is known as the base political line with a correct ideology and higher culture. And such a correct base political line is prime and unavoidable if people are to fight, and really they have no choice but to fight, the dangerous, treacherous, designful enemies they face day in and day out. It is the correct base political line that can define the concrete strategy of the movement and on its basis, the correct tactics of struggle at each twist and turn of the movements. So choosing, defining and adopting a correct base political line is the imperative necessity. If the movement is not based on such a line, however strong it may appear at one moment, sooner or later it is sure to be reduced to a great zero. However great may be the desire to resist the evil, without a correct base political line, the fighting people are sure to lose their way in the labyrinth of designs weaved by the enemies that foment disunity and confusion among people. And if and when the movement finds out the correct base political line, it may start from a zero, but correctly following the inexorable laws of contradiction of social forces, sooner or later it inevitably grows to earn ultimate victory. The great socialist revolutions, including the liberation struggles of the countries like Vietnam attest to this indelible truth, where no powerful enemy could hold back the victory of people.
But here again, it is equally necessary to realize and recognize that determining the correct base political line requires a powerful intensive ideological struggle, as that needs to be based on correct knowledge. Such correct knowledge can be acquired only on scientific ideology, through objective, materialistic, scientific and historical analysis of the situation around, the enemies and their means and methods that people have to face and the friends that people must gather together to consolidate their unity. In other words, the correct base political line can be derived only on a scientific philosophy. And in the present day world, it is Marxism- Leninism that can provide the desired and required scientific ideology and philosophy.
It must be realized that in the present world the correct ideology cannot be found in the practice of nationalism of any kind. It is true that once when the bourgeoisie had been developing the capitalist system fighting against feudalism and monarchy, nationalism played a progressive role. But today the same capitalist system has slumped down into total decadence and nationalism too has become obsolete, utterly reactionary. Today, it is only proletarian internationalism on the basis of Marxism- Leninism that can provide the correct path, can provide people with the invincible weapon. This is the ideology which on its sound political- ideological foundation of proletarian internationalism and higher loftier cultural-ethical standards can organize and unite the entire masses of widely divergent working people of the world to prepare for the sustained ultimate fight for the single common cause of emancipation of mankind from all kinds of exploitation, oppression, treachery and discrimination. The struggle may initiate and take place at any moment in any particular country, but based on Marxism- Leninism it will always get over sectarian nationalist ends and will bear the fraternity and solidarity towards similar fight going on anywhere on this world. The clarion call the great leaders Marx and Engels issued long back in the past “Workers of the world unite” will resonate with full vigour in the heart of every such fighter who takes up Marxism-Leninism as his or her guide to action, as philosophy of life. That was how the great November Revolution in Soviet Russia kindled the fire of revolution, or even of national independence movements across the world. It must be reiterated that when there was a mighty socialist camp led by the great leader Stalin, these kinds of horrors of terrorist acts that torment the present world were almost absent. But after the death of Stalin, when modern revisionism raised its ugly head, when revolutionary struggles and inter-national communist movement were thrust into disarray, when with the situation going from bad to worse, counter-revolution overwhelmed the erstwhile socialist countries, there developed a pathetic ideological void before the toiling people of the world. And taking advantage of this situation, the war-monger imperialists headed by the US imperialists and the dreaded terrorist outfits gradually overwhelmed the entire world with the present kinds of state terrorism, as wellas ghastly acts like suicide bombing or communal or racial clashes created and engineered by the capitalist-imperialists, engaging people into fratricidal killings pitting people against people. Hence taking lessons from the history, it is of prime necessity that massive and powerful working class movement and anti-imperialist struggle be developed on Marxism- Leninism in each country and all over the world. Presently such struggles are at their ebb, weak and disorganized. People will have to develop them with all might and patience in one country after another. And only in course of developing and strengthening such struggles that the bloodbath of innocent common people caused by the mounting spate of wanton killings, through suicide bombings or fratricidal clashes on ethnic, communal or other chauvinistic grounds, as well as brutal inhuman imperialist attacks and designs can be checked effectively. This is the only course lying ahead of the suffering people of one and all countries of the world to tread upon.
Recalling the Essential Teachings of Marx’s Celebrated Work ‘THE CAPITAL’
Great Engels while discussing in his preface to the pamphlet, “Wage, Labour and Capital”, that encapsulates the basics of ‘The Capital’, Marx’s monumental work, observed: “Economics observes the fact that the prices of all commodities, among them also the price of the commodity that it calls ‘labour’, are continually changing; that they rise and fall as the result of the most varied circumstances, which often bear no relation whatever to the production of the commodities themselves, so that prices seem, as a rule, to be determined by pure chance. As soon, then, as political economy made its appearance as a science, one of its first tasks was to seek the law which was concealed behind this chance apparently governing the prices of commodities, and which, in reality, governed this very chance…. Marx was the first thoroughly to investigate the value-creating quality of labour and he discovered in so doing that not all labour apparently, or even really, necessary for the production of a commodity adds to it under all circumstances a magnitude of value which corresponds to the quantity of labour expended… Classical economics …said: The value of a commodity is equal to its cost of production… commodities are, on the average, sold at their values, that is, at prices corresponding to the amount of necessary labour contained in them… Classical economics had got into a blind alley. The man who found the way out of this blind alley was Karl Marx. What the economists had regarded as the cost of production of “labour” was the cost of production not of labour but of the living worker himself. And what this worker sold to the capitalist was not his labour… he does not sell labour (which would first have to be performed) but puts his labour power at the disposal of the capitalist for a definite time (in the case of time work) or for the purpose of a definite output (in the case of piece-work) in return for a definite payment…what the economists called the cost of production of labour is really the cost of production of the worker and consequently of his labour power… In our present-day capitalist society, labour power is a commodity…It has, namely, the peculiar property of being a value-creating power… human labour power not only produces in one day a greater value than it itself possesses and costs; with every new scientific discovery, with every new technical invention, this surplus of its daily product over its daily cost increases, and therefore that portion of the labour day in which the worker works to produce the replacement of his day’s wage decreases; consequently, on the other hand, that portion of the labour day in which he has to make a present of his labour to the capitalist without being paid for it increases…These values produced by the workers do not, however, belong to the workers. They belong to the owners of the raw materials, machines, tools and the funds for advances which allow these owners to buy the labour power of the working class… the working class…receives back only a part for itself…. the other part…the capitalist class keeps for itself… the surplus (labour power) left over, (is) the capitalist’s profit.”
In his monumental work, ‘The Capital’, Marx showed that out of the necessity to survive, men need to produce from nature. Men produce in cooperation and relations with each other. Explaining that, he said: “In production, men not only act on nature but also on one another. They produce only by co-operating in a certain way and mutually exchanging their activities. In order to produce, they enter into definite connections and relations with one another and only within these social connections and relations does their action on nature, does production, take place.” That is called production relation. Secondly, the instruments of production plus the people with experience and skill who use these instruments constitute the productive force. The working masses have been the basic productive force of human society in all stages of its development. The ‘productive forces’ reflect the relationship of men to the objects and forces of nature used for the production of material wealth. So, both productive forces and production relations develop in the process of production. And then he showed that the economic structure of the society is a combination of production relation and productive forces. When we speak of a particular social system, we mean that it is based on a particular production system or in other words, a particular economic system. When in course of development, a given production relation becomes outmoded and obstructs further growth and development of the productive forces, necessity arises to change that production relation. In creating new productive forces, men change their mode of production; and in changing their mode of production, in changing the way of earning their living, they change all their social relations. Explaining further, Marx showed that right from the day society was class-divided based on production system with a handful of owners of the means of production expropriating the labour of others, antagonism set in between production relation (i.e. slave-slave master, serf-feudal lord, labour-capital) and productive forces. The unhindered development of the productive forces to meet the growing need of the people is impeded by the obtaining production relation in a class-divided society with antagonistic class interests of the exploiters and exploited. While the exploiters or ruling class tend to hold on to the existing production system, the exploited class seeks to change it. This, in the superstructure, is expressed as class struggle. Resolution of the irreconcilable contradiction between the growing productive forces and prevailing obsolete production relation is expressed in social revolution that establishes a new production relation entailing a new production system or economic structure. The contradiction between the production system and productive forces in the sphere of economy manifests itself as consciousness of man in the realm of superstructure and in a class-divided society, it is expressed as class struggle. When a particular production system becomes obsolete creating obstacles before harnessing the full potential of the growing productive force, there arises a social urge for a change in the realm of superstructure. So, the class struggle intensifies. When the exploited class which constitutes the productive force acquire necessary class consciousness by adequately equipping themselves ideologically, politically, culturally and organiza-tionally, it accomplishes social revolution which qualitatively changes the production relation or production system.
In the backdrop of this socio-economic theory based on scientific analysis of economic and corresponding socio-political changes and developments, Marx proceeded to explain what is ‘capital’ and ‘surplus value’. He, first of all, differentiated ordinary money from capital. He argued that in the very basic market arrangement and in societies with a simple division of labour (different people specializing in the production of different commodities), when someone, a common person, sells a commodity for money, he in turn uses that money to buy a commodity he needs. But the very laws of operation of capitalist economy are different. The capitalists aim at accumulation and multiplication of capital by way of making profit. To put it differently, the capitalists start with money, transform it into commodities which they do not use for their own consumption but sell in the market at a price thereby transforming those commodities into more money. So, capital is money used to obtain more money. How do the capitalists increase their capital? They engage workers or in other words, buy the labour power of the workers expended to make a product. The product so produced does not belong to the workers but is appropriated by the capitalist owner. The workers, in fact, treat their labour power as a commodity and sell it to the capitalist owners in exchange for a wage. The labour power of the workers is ingrained in the products. The labour time expended is congealed in the product. But, the wage that workers earn is only a fraction equivalent of the value of the product so created by expending labour power and labour time. The ‘surplus value’ of the labour power and time or ‘unpaid labour’ is appropriated by the capitalist owners in the form of profit. This is the essence of capitalist exploitation. By discovering this theory of capitalist exploitation through appropriation of ‘surplus value’, Marx related the social frame of reference with economy and showed how capitalist production relation based on labour and capital is premised on exploitation and deprivation.
To bring out this truth of capitalist economy which rests on usurpation of labour power of the workers by the capitalist owners and thereby generating, on the one hand, “immeasurable riches and a superfluity of products and on the other hand, turning the great mass of society …into wage-workers and thus proletaranized”, great Marx had authored ‘The Capital’ with impeccable arguments supported by facts and evidences. As Marx put it, “Labour is … not the only source of material wealth, i.e. of the use-values it produces…labour is the father of material wealth, the earth is its mother… Capital is dead labour, that, vampire-like, only lives by sucking living labour, and lives the more, the more labour it sucks. The time during which the labourer works, is the time during which the capitalist consumes the labour-power he has purchased of him.” To prove that, he explained some of the inherent features of production and economic terms. He showed that commodities are objects that satisfy human needs and wants. The basic criterion for assessing a commodity’s value is its essential usefulness or what is termed as ‘use value’. This ‘use value’ is intrinsic to a commodity. Commodities also have an ‘exchange value’ which, however, is not intrinsic to it. ‘Exchange value’ is the relative value of a commodity in relation to other commodities in an exchange situation or what is the worth of one commodity in relation to another commodity or in simple terms, its value in the market. But the question fundamental is where does this value come from? Could the commodities with different ‘use values’ be measured in the same units? In answering this, he showed that labour time is the only thing that all commodities with different use-values have in common and hence this is the sole criterion for comparing their respective worth in a situation of exchange. Marx further elaborated that the commodities do not just reflect the labour that went into making them but the social relations of production in which the labour was performed. In a capitalist society, since the quality or worth of a commodity is solely determined by its price or medium of exchange, the social aspects of labour are not expressed. Production and exchange, showed Marx, are social institutions, and their organization has social consequences. In capitalism, the capitalists are the owners of the means of production (factories, machines, raw materials). The capitalist owners appropriate ‘labour power’ to make profit. Marx’s point was that the production of commodities is a social process, dependent on exploitation and giving rise to antagonistic relationships among the classes—the exploiters and exploited. This issue was never addressed in bourgeois economics. In other words, in capitalist enunciation, economics and the production and exchange of commodities are reduced to the behaviour of money and thus the fact that commodities emerge through an inherently exploitative system of wage labour is conveniently suppressed. This in essence is Marx’s labour theory of value.
In providing economic insight of capitalist exploitation, Marx showed that since the very capitalist mode of production fundamental to human existence is based on exploitation and injustice, the capitalist system itself is based on injustice. In the capitalist society, the production relation of labour-capital is posing the obstacle before development of production in keeping with the growing productive forces to meet the growing need of the society. The law of exploitation built into the capitalist economic system is the source of social antagonism or to be exact, class antagonism, which will eventually lead to the dismantling of capitalism itself and at the same time root out exploitation of man by man in the economy. With abolition of class division, society would gradually after fulfilling necessary conditions ultimately transit to classless, exploitation-free communist society.
On the eve of 134th Death anniversary of Great Marx to be followed by bicentenary of his birth, these essentials of his work “The Capital” are recalled once again.
THE DIALECTICAL METHOD
J V STALIN
Everything in the world is in motion. … Life changes, productive forces grow, old relations collapse.
Marxism is not only the theory of socialism; it is an integral world outlook, a philosophical system, from which Marx’s proletarian socialism logically follows. This philosophical system is called dialectical materialism.
Hence, to expound Marxism means to expound also dialectical materialism.
Why is this system called dialectical materialism?
Because its method is dialectical, and its theory is materialistic.
What is the dialectical method?
It is said that social life is in continual motion and development. And that is true: life must not be regarded as something immutable and static; it never remains at one level, it is in eternal motion, in an eternal process of destruction and creation. Therefore, life always contains the new and the old, the growing and the dying, the revolutionary and the counter-revolutionary.
The dialectical method tells us that we must regard life as it actually is. We have seen that life is in continual motion; consequently, we must regard life in its motion and ask: Where is life going? We have seen that life presents a picture of constant destruction and creation; consequently, we must examine life in its process of destruction and creation and ask: What is being destroyed and what is being created in life?
That which in life is born and grows day by day is invincible, its progress cannot be checked. That is to say, if, for example, in life the proletariat as a class is born and grows day by day, no matter how weak and small in numbers it may be today, in the long run it must triumph. Why? Because it is growing, gaining strength and marching forward. On the other hand, that which in life is growing old and advancing to its grave must inevitably suffer defeat, even if today it represents a titanic force. That is to say, if, for example, the bourgeoisie is gradually losing ground and is slipping farther and farther back every day, then, no matter how strong and numerous it may be today, it must, in the long run, suffer defeat. Why? Because as a class it is decaying, growing feeble, growing old, and becoming a burden to life.
Hence arose the well-known dialectical proposition all that which really exists, i.e., all that which grows day by day is rational, and all that which decays day by day is irrational and, consequently, cannot avoid defeat.
For example. In the eighties of the last century a great controversy flared up among the Russian revolutionary intelligentsia. The Narodniks asserted that the main force that could undertake the task of “emancipating Russia” was the petty bourgeoisie, rural and urban. Why? — the Marxists asked them. Because, answered the Narodniks, the rural and urban petty bourgeoisie now constitute the majority and, moreover, they are poor, they live in poverty.
To this the Marxists replied: It is true that the rural and urban petty bourgeoisie now constitute the majority and are really poor, but is that the point? The petty bourgeoisie has long constituted the majority, but up to now it has displayed no initiative in the struggle for “freedom” without the assistance of the proletariat. Why? Because the petty bourgeoisie as a class is not growing; on the contrary, it is disintegrating day by day and breaking up into bourgeois and proletarians. On the other hand, nor is poverty of decisive importance here, of course: “tramps” are poorer than the petty bourgeoisie, but nobody will say that they can undertake the task of “emancipating Russia.”
As you see, the point is not which class today constitutes the majority, or which class is poorer, but which class is gaining strength and which is decaying.
And as the proletariat is the only class which is steadily growing and gaining strength, which is pushing social life forward and rallying all the revolutionary elements around itself, our duty is to regard it as the main force in the present-day movement, join its ranks and make its progressive strivings our strivings.
That is how the Marxists answered.
Obviously the Marxists looked at life dialectically, whereas the Narodniks argued metaphysically — they pictured social life as having become static at a particular stage.
That is how the dialectical method looks upon the development of life.
But there is movement and movement. There was movement in social life during the “December days,” when the proletariat, straightening its back, stormed arms depots and launched an attack upon reaction. But the movement of preceding years, when the proletariat, under the conditions of “peaceful” development, limited itself to individual strikes and the formation of small trade unions, must also be called social movement.
Clearly, movement assumes different forms.
And so the dialectical method says that movement has two forms: the evolutionary and the revolutionary form.
Movement is evolutionary when the progressive elements spontaneously continue their daily activities and introduce minor, quantitative changes into the old order.
Movement is revolutionary when the same elements combine, become imbued with a single idea and sweep down upon the enemy camp with the object of uprooting the old order and of introducing qualitative changes in life, of establishing a new order.
Evolution prepares for revolution and creates the ground for it; revolution consummates the process of evolution and facilitates its further activity.
Similar processes take place in nature. The history of science shows that the dialectical method is a truly scientific method: from astronomy to sociology, in every field we find confirmation of the idea that nothing is eternal in the universe, everything changes, everything develops. Consequently, everything in nature must be regarded from the point of view of movement, development. And this means that the spirit of dialectics permeates the whole of present-day science.
As regards the forms of movement, as regards the fact that according to dialectics, minor, quantitative changes sooner or later lead to major, qualitative changes — this law applies with equal force to the history of nature. Mendeleyev’s “periodic system of elements” clearly shows how very important in the history of nature is the emergence of qualitative changes out of quantitative changes….
We shall say nothing about other facts, on which F. Engels has thrown sufficiently full light in his Anti-Duhring.
Such is the content of the dialectical method……
Dialectics tells us that nothing in the world is eternal, everything in the world is transient and mutable; nature changes, society changes, habits and customs change, conceptions of justice change, truth itself changes — that is why dialectics regards everything critically; that is why it denies the existence of a once-and-for-all established truth. Consequently, it also repudiates abstract “dogmatic propositions, which, once discovered, had merely to be learned by heart” (see F. Engels, Ludwig Feuerbach).
Metaphysics, however, tells us something altogether different. From its standpoint the world is something eternal and immutable (see F. Engels, Anti-Dühring), it has been once and for all determined by someone or something — that is why the metaphysicians always have “eternal justice” or “immutable truth” on their lips….
Metaphysics recognises various nebulous dogmas, such as, for example, the “unknowable,” the “thing-in itself, “ and, in the long run, passes into empty theology. In contrast to Proudhon and Spencer, Engels combated these dogmas with the aid of the dialectical method (see Ludwig Feuerbach); but the Anarchists — the disciples of Proudhon and Spencer — tell us that Proudhon and Spencer were scientists, whereas Marx and Engels were metaphysicians!…
Needless to say, Hegel’s philosophical system, which rests on the immutable idea, is from beginning to end metaphysical. But it is also clear that Hegel’s dialectical method, which repudiates all immutable ideas, is from beginning to end scientific and revolutionary.
That is why Karl Marx, who subjected Hegel’s metaphysical system to devastating criticism, at the same time praised his dialectical method, which, as Marx said, “lets nothing impose upon it, and is in its essence critical and revolutionary “ (see Capital, Vol. I . Preface).
That is why Engels sees a big difference between Hegel’s method and his system. “Whoever placed the chief emphasis on the Hegelian system could be fairly conservative in both spheres; whoever regarded the dialectical method as the main thing could belong to the most extreme opposition, both in politics and religion” (see Ludwig Feuerbach)…
Is it possible for a thing to be good and bad at the same time?! That is “sophistry,” “juggling with words,” it shows that “you want to prove truth and falsehood with equal facility”! . . .
Let us, however, go into the substance of the matter.
Today we are demanding a democratic republic. Can we say that a democratic republic is good in all respects, or bad in all respects? No we cannot! Why? Because a democratic republic is good only in one respect : when it destroys the feudal system; but it is bad in another respect: when it strengthens the bourgeois system. Hence we say: in so far as the democratic republic destroys the feudal system it is good — and we fight for it; but in so far as it strengthens the bourgeois system it is bad — and we fight against it.
So the same democratic republic can be “good” and “bad” at the same time — it is “yes” and “no.”…It was facts of this kind that Engels had in mind when he characterised the dialectical method in the words we quoted above….
At a certain stage of their development, the material productive forces of society come in conflict with the existing relations of production, or — what is but a legal expression for the same thing — with the property relations. . . . Then begins an epoch of social revolution.” But “no social order ever perishes before all the productive forces for which there is room in it have developed . . . “ (see K. Marx, A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy. Preface).
If this thesis of Marx is applied to modern social life, we shall find that between the present-day productive forces, which are social in character, and the form of appropriation of the product, which is private in character, there is a fundamental conflict which must culminate in the socialist revolution (see F. Engels, Anti-Dühring, Part III, Chapter II).
As you see, in the opinion of Marx and Engels, revolution is engendered not by … “unknown causes,” but by very definite and vital social causes called “the development of the productive forces.”
As you see, in the opinion of Marx and Engels, revolution comes only when the productive forces have sufficiently matured… (Anar-chism or Socialism —S W Vol.1)
Red Salute Comrade Ramasre Maurya
Comrade Ramasre Maurya, Member, UP State Organizing Committee, SUCI(C), In-charge, UP State KOMSOMOL, and Secretary of AIUTUC, Eastern UP unit, breathed his last on 30 January 2018. He was 57. He was suffering from blood cancer and was under treatment in Mumbai. He was a very popular mass leader and good organizer of revolutionary movement. Inspired by the thoughts of Comrade Shibdas Ghosh, the great leader of the proletariat, he was initiated into the party in the 1980s. He took praiseworthy initiative in developing AIDSO and also Party organization in Jaunpur and adjacent areas. Later, when he took up the profession of a teacher, he tried to inspire his students to join revolutionary movement. He had a special affinity for the children and students and was committed to develop a healthy mind in a healthy body. Guided by the teachings of Comrade Shibdas Ghosh, he used to narrate the life struggle of the greatmen and freedom fighters of yester years to the children to draw lessons from that and thereby be imbued with higher proletarian revolutionary ideology. After his body was brought to home at Arjunpur, District Jaunpur, Comrades Pushpendra Vishwakarma, UP State Secretary, Bechan Ali, Pratapgarh District Secretary, Ravishankar Maurya Jaunpur District Secretary, SUCI(C), and Party comrades, supporters, well-wishers and teachers and students paid floral tributes to bid adieu to Comrade Maurya. A memorial meeting was held at Baharipur, Jaunpur on 7 February 2018. In his death, the Party has lost a devoted organizer.
NEWS & VIEWS
Central Committee, SUCI(C), in its meeting on 11 February, 2018, has decided to hold third Party Congress. Probable time is November, 2018. Central Committee has directed undertaking necessary preparations for that including renewal of Party membership.
Central Committee has also announced induction of Comrade Pranati Bhattacharyya, Staff Member and a member of West Bengal State Secretariat, into the Central Committee.
AIDSO in movement against
abnormal drop in the percentage of passed students of Calcutta University
The results of BA, BSc (Honours) and major courses of the colleges affiliated to Calcutta University have been dismal this year. The percentage of passed students for BA has come down from 75% to 43% while for BSc, the rate of success has fallen from 85% to 71%. Already a student has committed suicide not being able to bear the disappointment. Even the University authorities are reported to have admitted that newer rules of evaluation are responsible for the disaster. Obviously, the students burst into protest and AIDSO was in the forefront of the movement. A protest demonstration was held in front of the Vice-Chancellor’s office. However, the State TMC Education Minister was unfazed and insensitive enough to remark that “Students would fail and then start movement!”
Already the education system in the entire country is in shambles. Rapid privatization and commerciali-zation and on the top of it, systematic revision of the syllabi to banish secular, scientific education, dearth of qualified teacher, etc., have been fast bringing down the standard of education. Over and above, there is subversion of academic autonomy and increased control of the ruling party and the government on the educational institutions including universities. Even nepotism and favouritism is noticed in appointment of vice-chancellors and other high level functionaries. In fact, the authorities have been playing sixes and sevens with the students and using them as guinea pigs for various whimsical experimentations with the teaching methodology, curriculum and evaluation systems. Calcutta University which once was held in high esteem because of its quality of education is no exception to this. And the sordid state of affairs attests to that fact. As revealed, there is dearth of professors for the honours course. Several important posts are lying vacant. There are not sufficient books in the libraries of most of the colleges. Classes held are far lesser than the requisite number. The infrastructure and administration are also weak. There are allegations of corruption even at the University’s central office. The Controller’s Office is decimated because of removal of efficient officers. Now, when the students’ movements have been exposing the aberrations and irregularities, the University authorities and the Government have been forced to undertake re-examination of the answer sheets and put up a revised list of passed students. A powerful sustained movement involving all sections of education-loving people, teachers, students and guardians need to be released in right earnest to stem the rot.
Separate Telangana and Andhra Pradesh State Organizing Committees formed
The Central Committee of the SUCI(C) decided in a meeting on 13th December, 2017 to have the State Organizing Committee of Andhra Pradesh & Telangana State bifurcated into separate Telangana State Organizing Committee and Andhra Pradesh State Organizing Committee. The Central Committee also selected Comrade Ch. Murahari to act as Secretary of Telangana State Organizing Committee and Comrade BS Amarnath to act as Secretary of Andhra Pradesh State Organizing Committee. The Central Committee also decided that Comrade K. Sridhar, Staff Member, will supervise functioning of both the committees.
All India Protest Day against ruinous economic policies of BJP Government
Against the anti-people Union Budget for 2018-’19, the dangerous FRDI Bill, and decision to allow 100% FDI in retail as also on other pressing demands of the people, All India Protest Day was observed across the country on 2 February by our Party SUCI (C) .
Save Education Convention in Kolkata in demand of immediate reintroduction of Pass- Fail system
On demand of reintroduction of the Pass- Fail system in schools right from class I and immediately from the current session, All Bengal Save Education Committee (ABSEC) held a convention at the historic Indian Association Hall in Kolkata of 3 February . It was presided over by Prof. Anis Kr Ray, General Secretary, All India Save Education Committee. Shri Kartik Saha, Secretary ABSEC, placed the resolution in the house. Eminent educationists and intellectuals including Prof. Pabitra Gupta, former registrar, Kalyani Agricultural University, Prof Chandrasekhar Chakraborty, former VC, Shri Bibhas Chakraborty, renowned theatre personality, Prof. NR Pradhan and Prof. Tarun Naskar, addressed the house bringing out the disastrous effects of the ‘No Detention policy’ on the school education and dubious stand of both the Union and the West Bengal state governments in reintroducing Pass- Fail system. Unequivocally they reiterated the demand raised in the resolution for immediate reintroduction of the system. Prof. Amal Mukhopadhyay, former Principal of Presidency College, Kolkata, had sent a message regretting his absence due to indisposition and expressing his support to the demand. The Committee announced a road-march to take place on 22 February next.
Netaji Birth Anniversary observed in UP, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh and Gujarat
In several districts of Uttar Pradesh like Jaunpur, Pratapgarh, Varanasi, Balia, Mughalsarai, Chandmalia and Sultanpur, Netaji birth anniversary was observed amidst great enthusiasm and with due solemnity though organization of programmes like group meetings, mass meetings, garlanding and offering floral tribute to the great leader of freedom movement.
Similar observance programmes were held at Jaipur, Pilani and Alwar in Rajasthan and also at Ahmedabad, Vadodara and Surat in Gujarat.
Chhattisgarh state AIDSO organized a mass meeting at Mathpura Durga Chowk in Raipur on 23 January to observe Netaji birth anniversary.
The various mass organizations of the Party and people’s committees formed at the instance of the Party took initiative in this regard.
killing of Law student in Allahabad
On 12 February2018, AIDSO UP State Committee condemned in a Press statement the brutal killing of a law student Dilip Saroj by miscreants over a trivial issue on open road in Allahabad on 9 February. The UP AIDSO staged a protest demonstration and effigy burning against this ghastly killing and asked for stringent punishment of the culprits.
AIDYO Movement in demand for employment to all
Before coming to power, Prime Minister Narendra Modi promised to provide jobs to two crore of unemployed youth every year. Four years have rolled by and as per reports, not even 3 lakhs of jobs have been provided in these three years taking government and non-government sectors including unorganized sector. On the other hand as many as over 53 lakhs of workers are reported to have lost their jobs. Of late, BJP-led central government has decided to abolish lakhs of vacant posts lying in various government departments.
In protest and in demand for employment to all able persons, AIDYO has launched with renewed vigour a powerful movement throughout the country through adoption of various programmes. AIDYO has targeted collection of more than one crore signatures during the months of February and March organizing block-level demonstration, law-violation etc.
Prime Minister Providing Incorrect Figures to Confuse the Countrymen
Parliament is stated to be sovereign in bourgeois democracy. And the sovereignty of Parliament is contingent upon the sovereignty of the people. So, if Parliament is misled and that too by the country’s Prime Minister, it is nothing but a sheer act of befooling the countrymen. But, unfortunately that has happened of late and that too, reportedly, glaringly.
As part of his fiery speech in the budget session of Parliament on 7 February, 2018, Prime Minister Modi targeted the previous Congress government for worsening India’s crisis of bank debt. “I kept listening to your allegations for the sake of the nation but now the time has come that the nation should know the truth about NPAs (non-performing assets). The NPA are 100% UPA wrongdoings,” he said.
But the data he cited was puzzling. “Till the time you were in power you lied and said the NPAs were 36% but in 2014 (the year the BJP came to power) we started seeking the truth and looked at the documents. We realised that you gave wrong statistics. NPAs were at 82%,” he asserted.
A fact check by NDTV found that as per data by the Reserve Bank of India, gross NPA as percentage of total amount of loans stood at 3.8% in 2013-14, not 82%.
The Prime Minister went on to say that total advances by banks climbed to Rs. 52 lakh crore in March 2014, inferring that this was part of the UPA’s legacy of bad debt. “This was the money of India’s poor,” he said. The Rs. 52 lakh crore is, based on RBI data, total advances by Public Sector Banks, not NPAs.
In 2015-16, the second year of the present Modi government, and the last year for which data is available, gross NPA nearly doubled to 7.5%. Both the data and the video clip of PM Modi’s speech on NPAs were tweeted by the BJP’s official handle.
When the NDTV reporter tweeted the BJP the fact check seeking a response, within minutes the ruling party’s handle deleted the tweet. The BJP’s Twitter handle had earlier on Wednesday tweeted an info-graphic which may explain the source of the numbers used by the Prime Minister, albeit incorrectly.
“See how Bank NPAs was the biggest scam of the UPA government, which Modi government is trying to solve.”
That Tweet averred that the percentage of stressed (banking) assets identified as NPA climbed during the NDA’s tenure, from 36% in March 2014 to 82% in June 2017, contrary to the PM’s claims that the UPA had underestimated the proportion of NPAs under its watch. (Source : NDTV dated 08-02-18)
Height of Misoginy and Obscurantism and Cruelty
A day after the Supreme Court called for protection of inter-caste and interfaith couples, Naresh Tikait, the head of the Balyan Khap, told the apex court that they would “not give birth to girls at all”. Tikait’s remarks — which naturally ticked off the court — will inspire only those who believe that women are inferior. But for everyone else, this is a medieval mindset which pours liquid agony on good people and needs to be ended.
Tikait, irked by the apex body cutting these khap panchayats and their gross hostility to gender equality down to size, reportedly told the Supreme Court that it could not interfere with traditions.
Perhaps Tikait believes — with what might be seen as a whoop of ecstasy — that he has thumbed his nose at the court and the nation and triumphed. If he and his ilk stop producing girl babies, sooner or later, Tikait and his tribe will waste away. Where does Tikait think he comes from if not his mother’s womb? Not having girl children. Indeed. How laughable and yet, how cruel.
And Tikait isn’t alone. Hear the words of wisdom of Rajbir Singh Malik, head of Malik Khap. ”Maybe the Supreme Court has taken this stand influenced by the vulgar exhibition of modernity in cosmopolitan cities, but they must understand that village life is different, and we are bound by our traditions.” Really? In which village in this world is rape sanctified? For example in 2015, in Baghpat, Meerut, two sisters were ordered raped as punishment simply because their brother eloped with a woman from another caste. What sort of tradition is this?
The Supreme Court has banned these khaps. So why are they still functioning and assuming quasi-legal authority to hound people and cause anguish and pain? The process of dismantling them must begin in earnest immediately. Not one adult, man or woman, in love should have to face the terror of being shamed, maimed and even killed because these ghastly men poison Cupid’s arrow.
Though they are largely active in northern India and Uttar Pradesh, these anachronistic village gangsters — usually from higher castes — have similar set ups in other states and command attention by the spread of fear and retribution.
It’s time to put an end to this brutal regime in whatever form it may exist. (Source : First Post 07-02-18)